Department of Biomedical Engineering

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Derek Hansford

Associate ProfessorBiomedical Engineering
Associate ProfessorMaterials Science Engineering

293 Bevis Hall
1080 Carmack Road
Columbus, OH 43210

614-688-3449

Biographical Narrative

My research focuses on the application of microfabrication techniques for the production of tools and technologies for advancing health care. Because many traditional techniques have relied on semiconductor materials (which are generally too stiff for proper application to biomedical systems), we have developed a new toolbox of micro/nanofabrication techniques for biomedical polymers and ceramics. With newly enabled devices, we are exploring the interaction of cells and biomolecules with engineered structures and designing new devices to exploit enhanced interactions at the micro- and nano-scale to examine cell biology, cell mechanics, methods of improving cell and biomolecular diagnostic devices, and the interplay of mechanical and chemical signals on the cellular microenvironment.

Chapters in Books

2012

  • A Pelaez-Vargas, D Gallego-Perez, N Higuita-Castro, A Carvalho, L Grenho, JA Arismendi, MH Fernandes, MP Ferraz, DJ Hansford, FJ Monteiro, "Micropatterned coatings for guided tissue regeneration in dental implantology" In Cell Interaction. Edited by S Gowder. New York: InTech. 2012.
  • A Peleaz-Vargas, D Gallego-Perez, D Gomez, MH Fernandes, DJ Hansford, FJ Monteiro, "Propagation of human bone marrow stem cells for craniofacial applications" In Stem cells and cancer stem cells (Vol. 7): Therapeutic applications in disease and injury. Edited by MA Hayat. New York: Springer-Verlag. 2012.

2003

  • M Ferrari, D Friend, DJ Hansford, SS Kulkarni, F Martin, "Medical therapy: The next frontier of biochip and biomedical nanotechnology" In Biochips: Technology and Applications. Edited by W-L Xing, J Cheng. New York: Springer-Verlag. 2003.

2001

  • D Hansford, T Desai, M Ferrari, ""Nano-scale size-based biomolecular separation technology"" In Biochip Technologies. Edited by L. Kricka and J. Cheng. N/A: Harwood Academic Publishers. 2001.


Journal Articles

2014

  • Laranjeira, M, Carvalho, A, Pelaez-Vargas, A, Hansford, DJ, Ferraz, MP, Coimbra, S, Costa, E, Santos-Silva, A, Fernandes, MH, Monteiro, FJ, "Modulation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cell and human gingival fibroblast behavior by micropatterned silica coating surfaces for zirconia dental implant applications." Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 15

2013

  • Fei,Zhengzheng; Wu,Yun; Sharma,Sadhana; Gallego-Perez,Daniel; Higuita-Castro,Natalia; Hansford,Derek; Lannutti,John,J; Lee,Ly,James, "Gene Delivery to Cultured Embryonic Stem Cells Using Nanofiber-Based Sandwich Electroporation." ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY 85 3 1401-1407
  • Pelaez-Vargas,Alejandro; Gallego-Perez,Daniel; Carvalho,Angela; Fernandes,Maria,H; Hansford,Derek,J; Monteiro,Fernando,J, "Effects of density of anisotropic microstamped silica thin films on guided bone tissue regenerationIn vitro study." JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH PART B-APPLIED BIOMATERIALS 101B 5 762-769
  • DINAN,B; Gallego-Perez,D; LEE,H; Hansford,D; Akbar,S,A, "Thermally grown TiO2 nanowires to improve cell growth and proliferation on titanium based materials." CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL 39 5 5949-5954
  • Min, Y, Yang, Y, Poojari, Y, Liu, Y, Wu, JC, Hansford, DJ, Epstein, AJ, "Sulfonated polyaniline-based organic electrodes for controlled electrical stimulation of human osteosarcoma cells." Biomacromolecules 14 6 1727-1731

2012

  • Higuita-Castro,Natalia; Gallego-Perez,Daniel; Pelaez-Vargas,Alejandro; Garcia Quiroz,Felipe; Posada,Olga,M; Lopez,Luis,E; Sarassa,Carlos,A; Agudelo-Florez,Piedad; Monteiro,Fernando,J; Litsky,Alan,S; Hansford,Derek,J, "Reinforced Portland cement porous scaffolds for load-bearing bone tissue engineering applications." JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH PART B-APPLIED BIOMATERIALS 100B 2 501-507
  • Carvalho,A; Pelaez-Vargas,A; Gallego-Perez,D; Grenho,L; Fernandes,M,H; De Aza,A,H; Ferraz,M,P; Hansford,D,J; Monteiro,F,J, "Micropatterned silica thin films with nanohydroxyapatite micro-aggregates for guided tissue regeneration." DENTAL MATERIALS 28 12 1250-1260
  • Gallego-Perez,Daniel; Higuita-Castro,Natalia; Denning,Lisa; Dejesus,Jessica; Dahl,Kirstin; Sarkar,Atom; Hansford,Derek,J, "Microfabricated mimics of in vivo structural cues for the study of guided tumor cell migration." LAB ON A CHIP 12 21 4424-4432
  • Gallego-Perez,Daniel; Higuita-Castro,Natalia; Reen,Rashmeet,K; Palacio-Ochoa,Marcela; Sharma,Sadhana; Lee,L,James; Lannutti,John,J; Hansford,Derek,J; Gooch,Keith,J, "Micro/nanoscale technologies for the development of hormone-expressing islet-like cell clusters." BIOMEDICAL MICRODEVICES 14 4 779-789

2011

  • Pelaez-Vargas,A; Gallego-Perez,D; Magallanes-Perdomo,M; Fernandes,M,H; Hansford,D,J; De Aza,A,H; Pena,P; Monteiro,F,J, "Isotropic micropatterned silica coatings on zirconia induce guided cell growth for dental implants." DENTAL MATERIALS 27 6 581-589
  • Gallego-Perez,Daniel; Higuita-Castro,Natalia; Garcia Quiroz,Felipe; Posada,Olga,M; Lopez,Luis,E; Litsky,Alan,S; Hansford,Derek,J, "Portland cement for bone tissue engineering: Effects of processing and metakaolin blends." JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH PART B-APPLIED BIOMATERIALS 98B 2 308-315
  • Yang,Yanyin; Min,Yong; Wu,Jen-Chieh; Hansford,Derek,J; Feinberg,Stephen,E; Epstein,Arthur,J, "Synthesis and Characterization of Cytocompatible Sulfonated Polyanilines." MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS 32 12 887-892
  • Borteh,Hassan,M; Ferrell,Nicholas,J; Butler,Randall,T; Olesik,Susan,V; Hansford,Derek,J, "Peptide-induced patterning of gold nanoparticle thin films." APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE 258 1 230-235
  • Ferrell,Nicholas; Woodard,James; Hansford,Derek,J, "Measurement of cell forces using a microfabricated polymer cantilever sensor." SENSORS AND ACTUATORS A-PHYSICAL 170 1-2 84-89
  • Gallego-Perez,Daniel; Higuita-Castro,Natalia; Quiroz,Felipe,García; Posada,Olga,M; López,Luis,E; Litsky,Alan,S; Hansford,Derek,J, "Portland cement for bone tissue engineering: Effects of processing and metakaolin blends.." Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials 98 2 308-315

2010

  • Gallego-Perez,Daniel; Higuita-Castro,Natalia; Sharma,Sadhana; Reen,Rashmeet,K; Palmer,Andre,F; Gooch,Keith,J; Lee,L,James; Lannutti,John,J; Hansford,Derek,J, "High throughput assembly of spatially controlled 3D cell clusters on a micro/nanoplatform." LAB ON A CHIP 10 6 775-782
  • Sabbani,Supriya; Gallego-Perez,Daniel; Nagy,Amber; Waldman,W,James; Hansford,Derek; Dutta,Prabir,K, "Synthesis of silver-zeolite films on micropatterned porous alumina and its application as an antimicrobial substrate." MICROPOROUS AND MESOPOROUS MATERIALS 135 1-3 131-136
  • Ferrell,Nicholas; Yang,Yanyin; Hansford,Derek,J, "Micropatterning of sulfonated polyaniline using a soft lithography based lift-off process." MICROSYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES-MICRO-AND NANOSYSTEMS-INFORMATION STORAGE AND PROCESSING SYSTEMS 16 11 1951-1956
  • Garcia Quiroz,Felipe; Posada,Olga,M; Gallego-Perez,Daniel; Higuita-Castro,Natalia; Sarassa,Carlos; Hansford,Derek,J; Agudelo-Florez,Piedad; Lopez,Luis,E, "Housekeeping gene stability influences the quantification of osteogenic markers during stem cell differentiation to the osteogenic lineage." CYTOTECHNOLOGY 62 2 109-120
  • Pelaez-Vargas,A; Gallego-Perez,D; Ferrell,N; Fernandes,M,H; Hansford,D; Monteiro,F,J, "Early Spreading and Propagation of Human Bone Marrow Stem Cells on Isotropic and Anisotropic Topographies of Silica Thin Films Produced via Microstamping." MICROSCOPY AND MICROANALYSIS 16 6 670-676
  • Gallego-Perez,Daniel; Ferrell,Nicholas,J; Higuita-Castro,Natalia; Hansford,Derek,J, "Versatile methods for the fabrication of polyvinylidene fluoride microstructures." BIOMEDICAL MICRODEVICES 12 6 1009-1017
  • Ferrell,Nicholas; Gallego-Perez,Daniel; Higuita-Castro,Natalia; Butler,Randall,T; Reen,Rashmeet,K; Gooch,Keith,J; Hansford,Derek,J, "Vacuum-Assisted Cell Seeding in a Microwell Cell Culture System." ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY 82 6 2380-2386

2009

  • Schwan,Stefan; Ferrell,Nicholas; Hansford,Derek; Spohn,Uwe; Heilmann,Andreas, "Measurement of mechanical forces generated by plant P-protein aggregates (forisomes)." EUROPEAN BIOPHYSICS JOURNAL WITH BIOPHYSICS LETTERS 38 4 533-536
  • Xu,J; Dapino,M,J; Gallego-Perez,D; Hansford,D, "Microphone based on Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) micro-pillars and patterned electrodes." SENSORS AND ACTUATORS A-PHYSICAL 153 1 24-32

2007

  • J Guan, LJ Lee, and DJ Hansford, "Fabrication of particulate-like polymer microstructures for drug delivery by soft lithography." Small 3 3 412-418
  • M Palacio, B Bhushan, N Ferrell, and DJ Hansford, "Adhesion properties of polymer/silicon interfaces for biological micro/nanoelectromechanical systems applications." Jo Vac Sci Tech A 25 4 1275-1284
  • J Kitzmiller, DJ Hansford, L Fortin, K Obrietan, V Bergdall, and D Beversdorf, "Micro-field evoked potentials recorded from the porcine sub-dural cortical surface utilizing a micro-electrode array." Jo Neuroscience Methods 162 155-161
  • J Guan, N Ferrell, B Yu, DJ Hansford, and LJ Lee, "Simultaneous fabrication of hybrid arrays of nanowires and micro/nanoparticles by dewetting on micropillars." Soft Matter 3 11 1369-1371
  • Guan, Jingjiao; He, Hongyan; Lee, L James; Hansford, Derek J, "Fabrication of particulate reservoir-containing, capsulelike, and self-folding polymer microstructures for drug delivery.." Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) 3 3 412-418
  • Ferrell,Nicholas; Hansford,Derek, "Fabrication of micro- and nanoscale polymer structures by soft lithography and spin dewetting." MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS 28 8 966-971
  • M Palacio, B Bhushan, N Ferrell, and DJ Hansford, "Nanomechanical characterization of polymer beam structures for BioMEMS applications." Sensors and Actuators A 135 2 637-650
  • N Ferrell and DJ Hansford, "Micro and nanoscale fabrication of polymer structures by soft lithography spin dewetting." Macromolecules Rapid Communications 28 966-971
  • D Gallego, N Higuita, F Garcia, N Ferrell, and DJ Hansford, "Bioactive coatings on Portland cement substrates: Surface precipitation of Apatite-like crystals." Materials Science and Engineering C 28 253-358
  • D Gallego, N Ferrell, Y Sun and DJ Hansford, "Multilayer micromolding of degradable polymer tissue engineering scaffolds." Materials Science and Engineering C 28 347-352
  • N Ferrell, J Wooddard, and DJ Hansford, "Fabrication of polymer microstructures for MEMS: Sacrificial Layer Micromolding (SLaM) and Patterned Substrate Micromolding (PSM)." Biomedical Microdevices 9 815-821
  • Koulouridis,Stavros; Kiziltas,Gullu; Zhou,Yijun; Hansford,Derek,J; Volakis,John,L, "Polymer-ceramic composites for microwave applications: Fabrication and performance assessment." IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques 12 54 4202-4208

2006

  • J Guan, N Ferrell, LJ Lee, and DJ Hansford, "Fabrication of polymeric microparticles for drug delivery by soft lithography." Biomaterials 27 4034-4041
  • Guan, Jingjiao; Ferrell, Nicholas; James Lee, L; Hansford, Derek J, "Fabrication of polymeric microparticles for drug delivery by soft lithography.." Biomaterials 27 21 4034-4041
  • Butler,Randall,T; Ferrell,Nicholas,J; Hansford,Derek,J, "Spatial and geometrical control of silicification using a patterned poly-L-lysine template." Applied Surface Science 252 20 7337-7342
  • Kitzmiller, Joseph; Beversdorf, David; Hansford, Derek, "Fabrication and testing of microelectrodes for small-field cortical surface recordings.." Biomedical Microdevices 8 1 81-85
  • J Kitzmiller, DQ Beversdorf, and DJ Hansford, "Microfabrication of microelectrode arrays for neural column potentiometry." Biomedical Microdevices 8 81-85
  • B Bhushan, DJ Hansford, and KK Lee, "Surface modification of silicon and PDMS surfaces with vapor phase deposited ultrathin fluorosilane films for biomedical nanodevices." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A 4 24 1197-1202

2005

  • KK Lee, B Bhushan, and DJ Hansford, "Vapor phase deposition of fluoropolymers and fluorosilanes for nanochannel applications." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A 4 23 804-810
  • G Wei, B Bhushan, N Ferrell, and DJ Hansford, "Nanomechanical characterization of materials for Polymer MEMS applications." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A 4 23 811-819
  • J Guan, H He, DJ Hansford, and LJ Lee, "Self-folding of three-dimensional hydrogel microstructures." Journal of Physical Chemistry B: Condensed Matter, Materials Surfaces, Interfaces, and Biophysics 49 109 23134-23137
  • J Guan, A Chakrapani, and DJ Hansford, "Polymer microparticles fabricated by soft lithography." Chemistry of Materials 25 17 6627-6629

2003

  • Zheng, Zhi; Hansford, Derek, J; Conlisk, Albert T, "Effect of multivalent ions on electroosmotic flow in micro- and nanochannels.." Electrophoresis 24 17 3006-17
  • Z Zheng, DJ Hansford, and AT Conlisk, "Effect of multivalent ions on electroosmotic flow in micro and nanochannels." Electrophoresis 24 17 3006-3017

2002

  • AT Conlisk, J McFerran, Z Zheng, and D Hansford, "Mass transfer and flow in electrically charged micro- and nanochannels." Analytical Chemistry 74 9 2139-2150

2000

  • Desai, T, A; Hansford, D, J; Leoni, L; Essenpreis, M; Ferrari, M, "Nanoporous anti-fouling silicon membranes for biosensor applications.." Biosensors & bioelectronics 15 9-10 453-62
  • Desai, T, A; Hansford, D, J; Ferrari, M, "Micromachined interfaces: new approaches in cell immunoisolation and biomolecular separation.." Biomolecular engineering 17 1 23-36
  • TA Desai, DJ Hansford, and M Ferrari, "Micromachined interfaces: new approaches in cell immunoisolation and biomolecular separation." Biomolecular Eng. 17 1 23-26
  • T Desai, DJ Hansford, L Kulinsky, AJ Nashat, G Rasi, JK Tu, Y Wang, M Zhang, and M Ferrari, "Nanopore technology for biomedical applications." Biomedical Microdevices 2 1 11-40
  • T Desai, D Hansford, L Leoni, M Essenpreis, and M Ferrari, "Nanoporous anti-fouling silicon membranes for implantable biosensor applications." Biosensors and Bioelectronics 15 9-10 453-462

1999

  • P Belgrader, D Hansford, GTA Kovacs, K Venkateswaren, F Milanovich, S Nasarabadi, R Mariella, M Okuzumi, F Pourahmadi, and MA Northrup, "A minisonicator to rapidly disrupt bacterial spores." Analytical Chemistry 71 19 4232-4236
  • T Desai, D Hansford, and M Ferrari, "Characterization of Micromachined Membranes for Immunoisolation and Bioseparation Applications." Jo. Membrane Sci. 4132 1-11
  • Belgrader, P; Hansford, D; Kovacs, G, T; Venkateswaran, K; Mariella, R Jr; Milanovich, F; Nasarabadi, S; Okuzumi, M; Pourahmadi, F; Northrup, M A, "A minisonicator to rapidly disrupt bacterial spores for DNA analysis.." Analytical chemistry 71 19 4232-4236

Papers in Proceedings

2007

  • H Borteh, N Ferrell, R Butler, and DJ Hansford, "Electroless deposition of gold nanoparticles over silicon-based substrates." MRS Spring Meeting 2007 2007.
  • R Butler, N Ferrell, R Naik, DJ Hansford, "Controlled silica deposition on soft-lithography fabricated poly-L-lysine templates." MRS Spring Meeting 2007 2007.
  • DJ Hansford, "Polymer-Ceramic Electro-Magnetic Composites for RF/Microwave Antennas and Circuits." Composites at Lake Louise 2007.
  • D Gallego-Perez, N Ferrell, DJ Hansford, "Fabrication of piezoelectric Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) microstructures by soft lithography for tissue engineering and cell biology applications." MRS Spring Meeting 2007 2007.
  • AJ Spiwak, S Warron, S Sullivan, C Sopkovich, DJ Hansford, "Effect of pump operation on temperature change and weight change of a new tubing product for peristaltic pump operation." Amer Soc Extracorp Tech 2007.
  • I Tzanidis, CC Chen, D Hansford, and JL Volakis, "Spiral antenna miniaturization using variable magnetic material loading." URSI 2007 2007.
  • N Ferrell, A Bross, DJ Hansford, "Micro/nanofabrication by spin dewetting on a poly (dimethylsiloxane) mold." MRS Spring Meeting 2007 2007.
  • N Higuita, D Gallego, F Garcia, LE Lopez, C Sarassa, P Agudelo, AS Litsky, DJ Hansford, "Development of polydimethylsiloxane-reinforced Portland cement porous scaffolds for load-bearing bone tissue engineering applications." Int. Conf. Mech. of Biomaterials and Tissues 2007.
  • AJ Spiwak, C Sopkovich, T Preston, G Agarwal, DJ Hansford, "A visualization of extracorporeal technology by atomic force microscopy to appreciate surface characteristics for blood and tissue interactions." Amer Soc Extracorp Tech 2007.
  • E Apaydin, DJ Hansford, S Koulouridis, J Volakis, "Integrated RF circuits design and packaging in high contrast ceramic-polymer composites." IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation 2007.

2006

  • D Gallego-Perez, N Ferrell, Y Sun, DJ Hansford, "Microfabrication of degradable polymer tissue engineering scaffolds." Symposium on Advanced Processing of Biomaterials 2006.
  • A Chakrapani, N Ferrell, DJ Hansford, "Fabrication of Biodegradable Polymer Microdevices for Controlled Drug Delivery Systems." Particles 2006: Medical/Biochemical Diagnostic, Pharmaceutical, and Drug Delivery Applications of Particle Technology 2006.
  • SV Olesik, J Shearer, M Umaedi, N Ferrell, and DJ Hansford, "Selective carbon microfabricated liquid chromatographic devices for separation of biomolecules." HPLC Symposium 2006 2006.
  • D Gallego-Perez, N Higuita-Castro, F Garcia, N Ferrell, DJ Hansford, "Bioactive coatings on Portland cement: Surface precipitation of apatite-like crystals." Symposium on Advanced Processing of Biomaterials 2006.

2005

  • 1. H He, J Guan, DJ Hansford, and LJ Lee, "Hydrogel-based multifunctional delivery devices for oral protein administration." ACS Polymer Materials: Science and Engineering 2005.
  • J Woodard, N Ferrell, and DJ Hansford, "Design, fabrication, and optimization of a polymer MEMS sensor measuring single cell mechanics." Proc. IASTED Internat’l Conf Biomed Eng 2005.
  • D Gallego, J Klemas, E Lopez, DJ Hansford, "Biocompatibility studies on Portland Cement substrates: Potential Bone Tissue Engineering Applications." II Symposium about Biofactories, Biotechnology advances in Colombia 2005.
  • NJ Ferrell, J Woodard, and DJ Hansford, "Fabrication of suspended polymer microstructures using sacrificial layer micromolding and patterned substrate micromolding." Proc. Precision Micro/Nano Scale Polymer Based Component and Device Fabrication 2005.
  • J Volakis, K Kurabayashi, and DJ Hansford, "Miniature autonomous and wireless sensors based on nano-optofluidic microsystems for toxic gas detection." Working Together: R&D Partnerships in Homeland Security (Dept. Homeland Sec. Sci. & Tech. Dir 2005.
  • DJ Hansford, "Polymer MEMS devices for homeland security sensing applications." Working Together: R&D Partnerships in Homeland Security 2005.
  • DA Grewell, A Benatar, DA Ditmer, and DJ Hansford, "Beam shaping with diffractive optics for laser micro-welding of plastics." Proc. Precision Micro/Nano Scale Polymer Based Component and Device Fabrication 2005.
  • N Ferrell, J Woodard, and DJ Hansford, "Polymer MEMS sensors for measuring single cell biomechanics." Proc. 1st Internat'l Conf. Mech. of Biomat'ls & Tissues 2005.
  • 1. D Gallego, N Higuita, F Garcia, DJ Hansford, E Lopez, "Fabrication of Portland Cement porous scaffolds: Potential applications as load bearing bone substitutes." Colombian Congress of Bioengineering and Biomedical Engineering, 2005.
  • 1. D Gallego, N Higuita, F Garcia, DJ Hansford, "Biocompatibility improvement of Portland Cement through the introduction of pozzolanic materials: Effects of metakaolin on the cytotoxicity." Colombian Congress of Bioengineering and Biomedical Engineering, Bogotá, Colombia 2005.
  • 1. D Gallego, LE Lopez, DJ Hansford, J Klemas, "Bone Tissue Engineering applications of Portland Cement Phase I: Biocompatibility studies – Effects of Calcium Hydroxide." Third International Materials Congress 2005.

2004

  • N Ferrell, J Woodard, and DJ Hansford, "Fabrication of Polymer MEMS for Biological Applications." BioMEMS & Biomed Nanotech 2004 Conf 2004.
  • Y Sun, N Ferrell, and DJ Hansford, "Use of soft lithography for Multi-layer MicroMolding (MMM) of 3-D PCL scaffolds for tissue engineering." Matls Res Soc Proc 2004.
  • N Ferrell, J Woodard, and DJ Hansford, "Fabrication of a Polymer MEMS Sensor for Measuring Single Cell Biomechanics." Proc IASTED Internat’l Conf Biomech 2004.

2003

  • DJ Hansford, D Gallego, D Patiño, D Calderón, N Ferrell, A Chakrapani, "Microfabricación y evaluación in vitro de scaffolds en PLGA–ácido poli (DL-lactico-co-glicolico): Microfabrication and in vitro evaluation of PLGA scaffolds." 1st Colombian Congress of Bioengineering and Biomedical Engineering 2003.

Patents

2006

  • Hansford,Derek,J; Walczak,Robbie,J; Boiarski,Anthony,A; Albert Terrence Conlisk. Nanopump devices and methods 7799197 Filed Mar 2006 and Issued Aug 2010.

2003

2002

  • Essenpreis,Matthias; Desai,Tejal,A; Ferrari,Mauro; Hansford,Derek,J. Implantable Analyte Sensor 6405066 Filed May 2002 and Issued May 2002.
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